Ingrid Anderson on South African poetry publishing

In a recent interview with Dye Hard Press, Ingrid Anderson talks about her work publishing online poetry journal Incwadi, and about her own work.

Getting published is difficult for South African poets, especially for emergent poets. It seems a poet cannot get published without already being published – a Joseph Heller situation.

The realities of the market are that hard-copy journals are expensive to produce and they rely on subscriptions to survive, more so than sales from book stores. There are very few journals out there – most of the journals I grew up reading no longer exist.

For some years, I had been speaking to other poets about my wanting to bring out a journal. I wanted to provide another space where good poetry could be published. Two years ago, I began to speak to friends who were editors of poetry journals, to get an idea of what was involved. I made the financial decision to go online with a simple, quality website. I do the html coding myself, so it costs me two weekends a year, with no overheads other than the cost of bandwidth. The benefit of online is that I can use images as well, and allow them to interact with the poetry – which has fascinating results.

Read the full interview here.

How to get your poetry published


Having had my own book of poetry published, I’m often thought to be party to the secret handshake of publishers everywhere. When people ask me how they can get theirs published, I tell them it’s a tough road, full of complex choices and lucky turns. Actually, it’s a simple process. The tough part is writing poetry good enough for publication. Once you’ve got that sorted, it’s useful to know how poetry publishing works. Read what I’ve said here, and also read the Centre for the Book’s advice on publishing poetry.

Before you read the proper explanation below, this is the bottom line: first, find and read a few poetry magazines. Then send them about four poems at a time for them to consider publishing. Once you have had several poems published in magazines, then you can approach publishers who publish books of poetry. Now, here is how and why.

Very few people who write poetry know how to get it published, especially in South Africa. It’s just one of the drawbacks of growing up in a country where literature has not been a high priority. So the first thing is to understand the basics of how poetry publishing works. The principles are similar for short stories.

Firstly, there is a very big, important difference between “publishers” and “magazines”. Publishers publish collections of poetry by one or more people in book form. Magazines publish poems by different people (usually one to five poems per writer), and are published on a regular basis. Most magazines that specialise in poetry and short stories sell most of their copies to subscribers, who pay in advance and get their magazines in the post. Books and magazines both sell through bookshops, but they are usually marketed badly and stocked irregularly.

(There are also websites that publish poetry, and act as online poetry magazines. I’m not going to talk about them here, because they all have very different ways of working, and you can find hundreds of them online easily enough. In most cases, they are not as choosy about what they publish, because they are not limited by space. This means they have a reputation, sometimes unfairly so, for publishing poor poetry.)

It often seems as if no one cares about poetry. The simple reason for this is that there is no money in poetry. This is not a tragedy, it’s just the way it is. Really good, popular poetry is exceptionally hard to write, so it’s not surprising that there is very little of it, and that most other poetry doesn’t sell. A very successful collection of new poems in South Africa will sell about 500 copies. There are probably less than five publishers in South Africa who are willing to publish it at any one time, and their willingness to do so changes all the time, depending on their financial position. Those who are brave enough to publish collections of new poetry will publish about one a year. These will usually lose money and be cross-subsidised by other publishing.

There are more poetry publishers overseas, especially in the US and the UK. But they will almost always only consider publishing your work if you’ve already published a collection in your own country, and a few poems in magazines in their country.

Every writer starts by getting poems published in poetry magazines. No one ever, ever, ever starts with a collection. Well, unless they publish it themselves, but then you’re missing that stamp of approval, evidence of the quality of your work, that having someone else invest in it brings.

You need to find good literary magazines that publish poetry (and other forms of writing). If you’re thinking of submitting work to any of them, there are a few golden rules to follow. As a poetry editor, it’s very easy, and very annoying, to see when someone hasn’t followed these rules. Annoying the poetry editor is the best way to reduce your chances of getting published.

  1. Always read at least one whole issue of a magazine before submitting work to it. If you can’t find the magazine in a bookshop, write to the magazine and ask for a copy, or at least for the price and their bank account details. This will prevent you from wasting your time sending them the wrong kind of work. For instance, don’t send love poems in formal metre to a magazine that specialises in alternative theory and experimental literature.
  2. Don’t send too many poems. Each magazine has different guidelines about this. If you don’t know how many poems to send, don’t send more than five (or fewer if they’re longer than a page). Also, don’t include a long explanatory covering letter. The poems are what matter, they should speak for themselves.
  3. If the magazine does not take submissions by email, include a self-addressed, stamped envelope (SASE). When you post your poems to a magazine, make sure you include a self-addressed envelope, and put a stamp on it. Poetry magazines can’t afford hundreds of stamps. Remember you want to make the editors feel good about you so that they take your work seriously. Remember too that the whole point of submitting your work is to get a response, so make that as easy as possible for the editor.
  4. If you’re submitting by post to a journal overseas, include International Reply Coupons instead of stamps. You can apparently get these from the post office, though you’ll struggle in many developing countries. And if you can’t find them, apologise profusely to the editor of the magazine, and try to make another plan. Even if it’s including a memento of your far-flung country by way of sentimental compensation, and an email address. Oh, and if you’re submitting overseas, mention how you know about the magazine, and that you’ve read it. Magazines with websites get thousands of submissions from people overseas whose idea of poetry-magazine research is quality time with Google or the Writer’s and Artist’s Yearbook.
  5. Be absolutely sure about the quality of your work. If you aren’t certain that it’s good, it probably isn’t. If you haven’t read a lot of other poetry written in the last hundred years (at least the equivalent of an entire 400-page anthology of different poets; what you read at school doesn’t count), then you won’t know how your work relates to modern poetry. If you don’t know modern poetry, it is impossible to write with confidence. Lack of confidence shows up easily (in clichés, a poor sense of rhythm, slavish adherence to rules or an adolescent ignorance of them, clunky rhymes, overuse or lousy use of line-breaks, archaic language, a tendency to moralise, and so on).
  6. When you receive a rejection letter, send another submission to another magazine as soon as possible. Everyone gets rejected at some stage, and the disappointment can stop you in your tracks. You need to keep moving.

Those are the golden rules. In addition, there are a few things to keep in mind about submitting to magazines:

  • Don’t expect any feedback on your poems, editors don’t have the time.
  • Don’t expect more than a standard, mass-produced rejection or acceptance letter.
  • Don’t expect to get your poems back.
  • Don’t expect to be paid anything (though you’ll usually get at least one free copy of the magazine in which you appear).
  • Expect to wait a long time for a reply to your submission (though feel free to inquire after about two months).
  • Expect it to take even longer from when you are accepted to see the magazine in print.
  • Don’t expect to see page proofs or to be updated on progress before publication.
  • Expect magazines from time to time to make mistakes when typing up your poems; it sucks but it happens.

Some South African poetry magazines

I have gathered the details of a few South African poetry magazines for reference. Please let me know if you spot information here that is out of date. This list is quite old.


Small independent poetry publisher with an occasional magazine. Email:, Postal address: Postnet Suite 136, Private Bag X2600, Houghton, South Africa.


UPDATE: Carapace is now closed. See


A quarterly, international(ist) revue of new writing and imaging on African arts cultures, politics. “We seek unconventional essays, memoirs, reviews, poetry, short stories and forms not listed here (and nowhere else) in all South African languages plus French and Portuguese.” Website: Postal address: Chimurenga Magazine, PO.Box 15117, Vlaeberg, 8016, South Africa.

New Coin

Literary magazine. Website link. Postal address: c/o ISEA, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.

New Contrast

Founded in 1960 as Contrast, it has published many of South Africa’s most distinguished writers and is indexed by the MLA international bibliography. Website: Postal address: New Contrast, PO Box 44844, Claremont, 7735, Cape Town, South Africa.

Poetry International – South Africa

Online poetry magazine representing a range of South African poetry. Poetry International is not open to submissions, they select poets who are establishing and have established themselves in South African poetry. Nonetheless, it’s a great place to find, read and learn from leading South African poets. Website link.


See their website here.

If any of these details are incorrect, please let me know.

How to read poetry

From time to time I meet someone who seems interested in poetry in principle, but doesn’t know where to start reading. Of course in most cases they’re just feigning interest, because they want to please me or are playing me like a Singing Teapot. Nonetheless, it has helped me think about what I’d recommend, and why.

The first thing to remember is that ninety per cent of the poetry we read at school (who hasn’t read Yeats’ “An Irish airman foresees his death” or Blake’s “The Tiger”?) puts us off poetry. Those poems are good and interesting if you understand their historical context, albeit as interesting as studying cross-stitch techniques of the late 18th century. Historical context gives teachers and children something to talk about, because the teachers themselves usually don’t know enough about poetry to spot innovation, or to explain why a particular image or use of line breaks or internal rhyme is special. Or as kids we haven’t got the intellectual equipment to handle subtlety or get irony and innuendo.

Also, those who pick “school poems” usually want us to think that poetry has great social and historical significance. And the thing is, no one really knows this for sure. Only a few truly believe that poetry can change the world in any meaningful way. Perhaps occasionally a poem might tweak the zeitgeist, but usually it tweaks our recollected impression of a time, not the time itself. Reading poetry as a history lesson is a terribly narrow way to read poetry. Good poetry is good for how it fizzes and sloshes in the ear and the mind, not for how it teaches history.

A last suggestion: read slowly so you can take in the details. It’s like those metal flowers made from old cool-drink cans. Prose is like the can. It’s practical, it serves a purpose, and even when well designed it’s not something you take a moment to contemplate, unless you have the time and are interested in cool-drink-can design. Poetry is the flower made from the can. The most colourful, intense parts of the can are used in a particular combination, often borrowing the essence of the can’s design, distilling it, and presenting it in a form that is carefully chosen for maximum effect. It is something you might keep and return to, because it shows that someone cares about the details, and that it’s possible to carve something beautiful from the ordinary.

Poems to look for

Obviously everyone likes different stuff for different reasons. These have been important poems for me since I was very young.

  • Robert Frost, “Mending Wall”, “Out, Out–”
  • Philip Larkin, “Church Going”
  • Howard Nemerov, “The Blue Swallows”
  • W. H. Auden, “Musée des Beaux Arts”
  • William Carlos Williams, “Danse Russe”
  • John Agard, “Poetry Jump-up”
  • Wallace Stevens, “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird”
  • Hugh MacDiarmid, “Perfect”
  • E. E. Cummings, “somewhere i have never travelled,gladly beyond”
  • Robert Graves, “Love Without Hope” (and most of his poetry, especially his love poetry)
  • Douglas Livingstone, “Gentling a wildcat” (one of South Africa’s greatest poets)
  • Theodore Roethke, “Root Cellar”
  • Robert Lowell, “For the Union Dead”
  • James Wright, “I Try to Waken and Greet the World Once Again”
  • Adrienne Rich, “The Ninth Symphony of Beethoven Understood at Last as a Sexual Message”
  • Sylvia Plath, “You’re”
  • Seamus Heaney, “Death of a Naturalist”, “Limbo”
  • Craig Raine, “A Martian Sends A Postcard Home”
  • Carol Ann Duffy, “Warming Her Pearls”
  • Alice Oswald, Dart (This is a short book, a single poem. It’s the most astonishing thing I read in 2004.)

So I’ve got this poetry manuscript …

Once you’ve published a book of poetry, or helped others self-publish theirs, you get a lot of questions about how it’s done. Usually, I am asked by writers in South Africa how they can publish a poetry collection. Here’s the simplest answer I have.

These days, I think self-publishing poetry is the best option 99 per cent of the time, and this tends to cost an average of about R12000 in total with a good self-publishing services company (design, proofreading, and print-on-demand distribution). The service my company developed (and from November 2009 will be run by another company, but under the same banner) is Mousehand. Other South African services include Crink and New Voices Publishing (sometimes a little cheaper, but distribution works differently; make sure really understand each service before deciding what’s best for you!). Of course, this gets cheaper if you only distribute as an ebook, or only pay for design and proofreading and handle distribution yourself, perhaps printing in small quantities (say, 50 copies at a time) directly with a digital-printing company like Megadigital.

If you want to keep costs really low, try publishing first in ebook form only. For a how-to, start with EBW’s practical advice on self-publishing ebooks.

Beyond self-publishing, I’m afraid I don’t really know of other options these days. The poetry collections published occasionally by established houses are almost always commissioned (that is, they don’t come from unsolicited submissions). It’s really a question of funding, and having the time and energy to promote the book enough to break even on sales. I’m yet to find a book of poetry that made a profit. Poetry in South Africa and, I suspect, elsewhere is very much a labour-of-love industry from what I can tell, a craft and a contribution to the undergrowth of letters that’s so important to a national literature.